Biography (Complete) BJ Habibie: Mr. Technology and Democracy Indonesia
Prof. DR (HC). Ing. Dr. Sc. Mult. Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie otherwise known as BJ Habibie (73 years) is a man Pare-Pare (South Sulawesi) born June 25, 1936. Habibie became president of the 3rd Indonesia for 1.4 years and 2 months to be Vice President to-7. Habibie is a "blaster" between the Javanese [mother] with the Napier / Pare-Pare [father].
Photo: BJ Habibie
The days of small, Habibie has shown intelligence and high spirits on science and technology, particularly physics. For six months, he enrolled at the Mechanical Engineering Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), and continued to Rhenisch Wesfalische Tehnische Hochscule - Germany in 1955. With financed by his mother, RA Tuti Marini Puspowardoyo, young Habibie spent 10 years to complete the study of S-1 to S-3 in Aachen-Germany.
Unlike the average Indonesian students get scholarships abroad, college Habibie (especially S-1 and S-2) funded directly by the mother who does catering business and Indekost in London after her husband left to go (Habibie's father). Habibie mengeluti field of aircraft design and construction at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. During the five years of study in Germany Habibie finally earned his diploma Dilpom-Ingenenieur or technique (note: diploma engineering in Germany is generally equated with a degree Master/S2 in other countries) with summa cum laude.
Pak Habibie continued doctoral program after marrying his high school friend, Mrs. Hasri Ainun Besari in 1962. Together with his wife living in Germany, Habibie had to work to pay for tuition as well as household costs. Habibie explore the field of Aircraft Design and Construction. In 1965, Habibie S-3 completed his studies and received his PhD Ingenieur (Doctor of Engineering) with a GPA summa cum laude.
Career in the Industry
During his doctoral student, BJ Habibie had started working for his family and cost studies. After graduation, BJ Habibie worked at Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm MBB or Hamburg (1965-1969 as Head of Research and Development on Aircraft structure of the analysis, and then served as Head of the Division of Methods and Technology in industrial commercial and military aircraft in MBB (1969 - 1973). kebriliannya top performance and, four years later, he was believed to be the Vice President and Director of Technology at MBB period 1973-1978 and a Senior Penasihast technology to the Board of Directors MBB (1978). was he the only Asians who occupied number two position in the German aircraft company.
Before entering the age of 40 years, Habibie was very brilliant career, especially in the design and construction of aircraft. Habibie be a "jewel" in the country Germany and he got "an honor", both materially and intellectually by the Germans. While working in MBB Germany, Habibie contributed various research results and a number of theories for science and technology in the field of Thermodynamics, Construction and Aerodynamics. Several theoretical formulations known in the aircraft as "Habibie Factor", "Habibie Theorem" and "Habibie Method".
Return to Indonesia
In 1968, BJ Habibie has invited a number of engineers to work on the German aircraft industry. About 40 engineers working in Indonesia finally on the recommendation of Mr Habibie MBB. This is done to prepare skill and experience (SDM) Indonesian engineers to someday be able to return to Indonesia and make products aerospace industry (and later maritime and terrestrial). And when (the late) President Soeharto send Ibnu Sutowo to persuade Germany to meet while Habibie returned to Indonesia, BJ Habibie immediately willing and leaving office, position and high prestige in Germany. This is done by BJ Habibie contribute to science and technology in the nation. In 1974 at the age of 38 years, BJ Habibie return to their homeland. And he appointed a government adviser (directly under the president) in the field of technology and high-tech aircraft until 1978. Despite of the years 1974-1978, Habibie was often home to go to Germany because they served as Vice President and Director of Technology at MBB.
Habibie began to really focus after he fired a high position in the German MBB Aircraft Company in 1978. And since then, from 1978 to 1997, he was appointed Minister of State for Research and Technology (Research and Technology) as well as serving as Chairman of the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT). Besides, Habibie was also appointed as Chairman of the National Research Council and various other positions.
- CN-235 aircraft owned by Air Force works IPTN Spain
As a Research and Technology , Habibie to implement its vision of bringing Indonesia into the high-tech industry. He pushed a leap in the development strategy of agrarian jump straight to the advanced industrial countries. His vision that instantly bring Indonesia into the industry gets opposition from various parties, both inside and outside the country who want a gradual development that started from the focus of investment in agriculture. However, Habibie has strong confidence will his vision, and there is a "quote" from the famous Habibie namely:
"I have some figures roomates compare the cost of one kilo of airplane Compared to one kilo of rice. One kilo of airplane costs thirty thousand U.S. dollars and one kilo of rice is seven cents. And if you want to pay for your one kilo of high-tech products with a kilo of rice, I do not think we have enough. "(Source: BBC: BJ Habibie Profile -1998 .)
The sentence above is Habibie weapon to argue with his political opponents. Habibie would like to explain why the tech industry is very important. And he compares the prices of products from high-tech industries (high tech) and agricultural products. He showed data that the price of 1 kg aircraft is USD 30,000 and 1 kg of rice is 7 cents (USD 0.07). This means that 1 kg aircraft is almost equivalent to 450 tonnes of rice. So by making 1 piece of the plane with a mass of 10 tons, will be obtained rice 4.5 million tonnes of rice.
Pak Habibie mindset welcomed by Mr. Harto.Pres. Suharto was willing menggangarkan extra funds from the state budget for the development of technology projects Habibie. And in 1989, Suharto gave "power" over the Habibie Habibie by giving confidence to lead strategic industries such as Pindad, PAL, and PT IPTN. Habibie became RI-1
Materially, Habibie is well established when he worked at the German company MBB. In addition to well-established, Habibie has a very strategic position as well as the Senior Vice President advicer in German high-tech companies. So Habibie plunged into administration not because of the money or power per se, but rather the feeling of "thank you" to the state and people of Indonesia and also to his parents. Similar attitudes were shown by Kwik Kian Gie , ie, after a rich and prosperous at first, and Kwik retired from business and new to politics. Not vice versa, which is mostly done by the politicians today who become politicians in search of wealth / popularity so no wonder the mushrooming corruption.
Three years after his return to Indonesia, Habibie (age 41 years) received the title of Professor of Engineering from ITB. Over the past 20 years as the Minister, finally, on March 11, 1998, Habibie was elected as Vice President for-7 through the General Assembly. At the time that the economic crisis (financial crisis) hit the Asian region, including Indonesia. The rupiah plummeted from Rp 2,000 per U.S. dollar to Rp 12,000 per dollar's. Foreign debt maturities so that swell due to the depreciation of the rupiah. This diperbarah by private banks experiencing liquidity problems. Inflation soared above 50%, and unemployment started to happen everywhere.
At the same time, public outrage peaked with the new order system is loaded corruption, collusion, nepotism committed by Suharto cronies (officials, politicians, tycoons). Besides corruption, authoritarian Suharto government classified, which captures vocal activists and students.
Triggered shooting 4 students (Tragedies) on May 12, 1998, public outrage erupted, especially among activists and students in the New Order government. The movement of students, activists, and all the people at 12-14 May 1998 be a momentum change of the regime leader Mr Hato. And on May 21, 1998, President Suharto was forced to retire from the post of president which he held for about 32 years. During the 32 years that, authoritarianism and corruption grew sumbur loaded. During the 32 years of that, many truths are silenced. Starting from the turn of the Sukarno government (and exile Pres Sukarno), G30S-PKI, Supersemar, until Soeharto alleged conspiracy with the U.S. and its allies to dredge the natural resources by the people, the capitalists under the banner korpotokrasi (including the CIA, Duni Bank, IMF and conglomerate ).
Suharto's resignation, then his Deputy that BJ Habibie was appointed the third President under section 8 of the 1945 Constitution. However, his tenure as president lasted only 512 days. Although very short, the leadership of President Habibie of Indonesia was able to bring back from the brink of collapse due to the crisis. President Habibie successfully led the country out of the ultra-crisis situation, to implement the transition from otorian country into democracy. Successfully conducting the 1999 elections with multi parti (48 parties), successfully brought a change signifikn on stability, democratization and reform in Indonesia.
Habibie was the first president of Indonesia who received many awards, especially in the field of science and technology both domestically and abroad. His services in the field of aircraft technology to deliver he received an Honorary Doctorate degree ( Doctor of Honoris Causa ) from the University berbagaai world leading, among others, Cranfield Institute of Technology and Chungbuk University.
Special Notes BJ Habibie
Habibie, Suharto Meet
"Carry only your job well, I pray that Allah SWT is always protected Habibie in performing the task. We will meet in the inner course, "answered Soeharto refused to meet with Habibie in a phone call on June 9, 1998. (Habibie: Decisive Moments. Pages 293)
One of the common questions and many people do not know is how Habibie who lives on the island of Celebes could meet and familiar with Suharto who spent most of his life in Java?
Habibie first meeting with Suharto occurred in 1950 when Habibie was 14 years old. At that time, Suharto (Lieutenant Colonel) came to Napier in order to combat the insurgency / separatist in eastern Indonesia during the Sukarno government. Lieutenant Colonel Suharto lived opposite the family home Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie. Since the mother is the Javanese Habibie, Suharto was then (Javanese) were received very well by the Habibie family. In fact, Suharto participate Habibie was present when my father died. In addition, Suharto was a "matchmaker" Habibie sister's wedding with men (soldiers) Lieutenant Colonel Suharto. Proximity-Habibie, Suharto continued despite Suharto had returned to Java after successfully combating the insurgency in eastern Indonesia.
After Habibie completed the study (about 10 years) and worked for almost 9 years (a total of 19 years in Germany), Habibie finally called back to their homeland by Soeharto. Although he was not awarded a scholarship to study in Germany from the government, Mr. Habibie still willing to go home to serve the country, especially the request comes from the fact Soeharto was 'a teacher' for Habibie. Habibie decided to return to Indonesia to give knowledge to the people of Indonesia, back to build high-tech industry in the archipelago.
Together Ibnu Sutowo, Habibie came back to Indonesia and met with President Soeharto on January 28, 1974. Habibie proposes the idea of ??development as follows:
- The idea of ??building the aircraft industry nationwide as spearhead strategic industry
- The idea of ??establishing a Center for Research and Development of Science and Technology (Puspitek)
- The idea of ??the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Science of Technology (BPPT)
Habibie initial ideas feed into Soeharto and Habibie began to materialize when it served as a minister of the period 1978-1998.
However, the days of old, the relationship Habibie-Suharto apparently cracked. This is because the policies Habibie who allegedly "humiliating" Soeharto. The dismissal of Lt. Gen. (ret.) Prabowo from office because mobilize troops Kostrad Kostrad to Jakarta (and Brass Castle) without coordination boss is one policy that 'painful' pack Harto. Though Prabowo was Soeharto's favorite son who had been educated and nurtured into Suharto's successor. Examination as graft suspect Tommy Soeharto helped create 'hot' with BJ Habibe government policies, especially on several occasions in the media, BJ Habibie gave the green light to examine Soeharto. Though Tommy is the son of 'gold' Soeharto. And so many opposed to the Suharto government policy in the field of press, politics, the law until the unconditional release of political prisoners such as Sri Bintang Pamungkas Soeharto and Mukhtar Pakpahan.
Habibie: Mr. Technology Indonesia *
Habibie thoughts that "high-tech" got "heart" Harto pack. It could be said that Soeharto admire Habibie thinking, so his thoughts easily approved pak Harto. Soeharto agreed budgeted "extra funds" to develop ideas Habibie. Ease of access and proximity-Habibie, Suharto was considered by various parties as a form of collusion Habibie-Soeharto. Moreover, some parties do not agree with the mindset Habibie since the Suharto government willing to spend substantial funds for the development of high-tech industries such as the suggestion Habibie.
On 26 April 1976, Habibie established PT. Aircraft industry and became the first aircraft industry in South East Asia Region (note: Mr. meruapakan Nurtanio Aircraft Industry Pioneers Indonesia). Aircraft Industry renamed Nusantara Aircraft Industry (IPTN) on October 11, 1985, then direkstrurisasi, became Dirgantara Indonesia (PT DI) on Agustuts 2000. Istimewapun treatment experienced by other strategic industries such as PT PAL and PT PINDAD.
Since the establishment of the state statregis industries, each year Soeharto government has budgeted a relatively big budget to develop high-tech industries. And budget with very large numbers issued since 1989 where Habibie led strategic industries. However, Habibie has a logical reason to start the high-tech industry, would require a huge investment for a period of time. Results may not be felt immediately. Planting durian trees only took 10 years to harvest, especially high-tech industry. Therefore, over the years the style of strategic industry Habibie has yet to yield and consequently the country continues to finance the operating costs of the strategic industries is quite large.
Strategic industries ala Habibie (IPTN, Pindad, PAL) ultimately deliver results such as airplanes, helicopters, weapons, skills training and maintenance services (maintenance service) for aircraft engines, ammunition, ships, tanks, armored vehicles, rifles caliber , water cannons, RPP-M vehicles, combat vehicles and much more both for civilian and military purposes.
For international scale, BJ Habibie involved in various design and construction projects such as aircraft Fokker F 28, Transall C-130 (military transport), Hansa Jet 320 (executive jets), Air Bus A-300, DO-31 transport aircraft (aircraft technology dangn land and take off vertically), CN-235 and CN-250 (aircraft with the technology fly-by-wire). Moreover, Habibie indirectly involved in the project design calculations and BO-105 helicopter type, multi-function fighter aircraft, some missiles and satellites.
Because the mindset is, I consider him as the father of the technology Indonesia, liberated how much success a la Habibie strategic industries. Because we know that in 1992, the IMF instructed not to give Soeharto to IPTN operating funds, so that when it IPTN began entering a critical condition. This is because the plan makes satellite Habibie himself (note: the 1970's Indonesia is the country's 2nd largest satellite usage), the plane itself, as well as its own military equipment. It is supported by 40 0rang Indonesian experts who have work experience in the satellite manufacturer Hughes Americans will be drawn back to Indonesia to develop high-tech industry in Indonesia. If this is true, then this will threaten American technology industry (reducing the market share) as well as concerns high-tech capabilities and the Indonesian military.
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