Biography Ir. Soekarno (Indonesian First President)
Ir. Soekarno (born in Blitar, East Java, June 6, 1901 - died in Jakarta, June 21, 1970 at age 69 years) is Indonesia's first president who served two terms from 1945 to 1966. He played an important role for the liberation of Indonesia from Dutch colonialism. He is a digger Pancasila. He was proclaimed Indonesian independence (along with Mohammad Hatta) which occurred on August 17, 1945.
Sukarno signed the Warrant March 11, 1966 Supersemar controversial, in which - according to the released version of Army Headquarters - Lt. Gen. Suharto assigned to secure and maintain state security and the institution of the presidency. Supersemar basis Lieutenant General Suharto to dissolve the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and replace the members who sit in parliament. After the answer denied liability Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) in the fourth general assembly in 1967, President Sukarno removed from office as president in the MPRS Special Session of the same year and raised Suharto as acting President of the Republic of Indonesia.
Background and education
Sukarno was born with the name Kusno Sosrodihardjo. His father named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, a teacher in Surabaya, Java. His mother was Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai comes from Buleleng, Bali
As a young child living with his grandfather Sukarno in Tulungagung, East Java. At the age of 14 years, a friend of his father who called Tjokroaminoto Sukarno invited to stay in Surabaya and schooled to Hoogere Burger School (HBS) in there with a Koran in the Tjokroaminoto. At Surabaya, Sukarno many met with the SI leaders, the organization led Tjokroaminoto time. Sukarno then joined the organization Jong Java (Java Youth).
Finished H.B.S. 1920, Sukarno continued to Technische Hoge School (now ITB) in Bandung, and graduated in 1925. While in Bandung, Sukarno interact with Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Dr. Douwes Dekker, who was then leader of the National organization Indische Partij.
Early national movement
In 1926, Sukarno founded Algemene Study Club in Bandung. This organization became the embryo of the Indonesian National Party, founded in 1927. Sukarno's PNI activity causes arrest in the Netherlands in December 1929, and led to a phenomenal pledoinya: Indonesia Sue, to be released back on December 31, 1931.
In July 1932, Sukarno joined the Party of Indonesia (Partindo), which is a fraction of the PNI. Sukarno was arrested again in August 1933, and exiled to Flores. Here, Sukarno was almost forgotten by the national figures. But his spirit still burning as implied in every letter to a teacher of Islamic Unity named Ahmad Hassan.
In the year 1938 until the year 1942 Sukarno was exiled to the province of new Bengkulu.Soekarno free return during the Japanese occupation in 1942.
Japanese colonial period
Sukarno with Fatmawati and Guntur
In the early Japanese colonial period (1942-1945), the Japanese government had not noticed movement figures for Indonesia, especially "secure" its presence in Indonesia. This looks at the character's Movement 3A and Mr. Shimizu. Shamsuddin is not so popular.
But eventually, the Japanese occupation government attention and at the same time take advantage of Indonesian figures such as Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and others in each of the organizations and institutions to attract the hearts institutions Indonesian population. Mentioned in various organizations such as Java Hokokai, Center for the People's Power (Putera), BPUPKI and PPKI, of figures such as Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, KH Mas Mansyur and other options mentioned and looks very active. And finally the national leaders in cooperation with the occupation government to achieve the independence of Indonesia, although some are underground movement like Sutan Syahrir and Amir Syarifuddin because they think Japan is a dangerous fascist.
Soekarno of World Leaders
President Soekarno himself, during his opening address before reading the text of the proclamation of independence, saying that although we work together with Japan we actually believe and believe and rely on their own strength.
He is active in preparation for the independence of Indonesia, including the formulation of Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution and the basic foundation of Indonesian rule, including formulating the text of the proclamation of Independence. He could be persuaded to get out to Rengasdengklok Events Rengasdengklok.
In 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo to invite leaders of Indonesia Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo to Japan and received by Emperor Hirohito. Even the emperor gave Star Empire (Holy Rachael) to the three figures is Indonesia. The awarding of stars that makes the Japanese occupation government was surprised, because it means that the three characters were considered Indonesia Japanese imperial family itself. In August 1945, he was invited by Marshal Terauchi, the Army leadership in the Southeast Asian region Dalat Vietnam who later declared that the proclamation of Indonesian independence is a matter of the Indonesian people themselves.
But his involvement in bodies formed organization accused Japan made by the Dutch Sukarno cooperated with the Japanese, among others in romusha case.
The living room is a safe house in Rengasdengklok Bung Karno.
Sukarno with the national leaders began to prepare themselves before the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. After hearing the Investigating Committee of Indonesian Independence Preparation Business BPUPKI, subcommittee consisting of eight people (official), subcommittee consisting of nine persons per committee Nine (which produces the Jakarta Charter) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence PPKI, Soekarno-Hatta Indonesia State founded based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
After seeing Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, there Rengasdengklok event on August 16, 1945; Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta were persuaded by the youth to get away to boarding homeland defense forces Rengasdengklok Map. Youth leaders who persuaded the others Soekarni, Wikana, Singgih and Chairul Saleh. The youths demanded that Sukarno and Hatta declared independence soon the Republic of Indonesia, because Indonesia's power vacuum there. This is because Japan had surrendered and Allied troops had not arrived. But Sukarno, Hatta and the leaders refused to wait for clarity about the reasons for Japan's surrender. Another reason is the Soekarno developing appropriate moment to establish the independence of the Republic of Indonesia which is chosen on 17 August 1945 when it coincided with Ramadan, the Muslim holy month that is believed to be in the first revelation of the Muslims to the Prophet Muhammad's Qur'an. On August 18, 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta PPKI be appointed by the President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On August 29, 1945 appointment as president and vice president confirmed by KNIP.Pada on 19 September 1945 the authority to resolve the Soekarno bloodless field event in which 200,000 people Ikada Jakarta will clash with Japanese troops who were armed to the teeth.
At the time of arrival of the Allies (AFNEI) led by Lieutenant General. Sir Philip Christison, Christison finally recognize the sovereignty of Indonesia as a de facto after meeting with President Sukarno. President Sukarno was also trying to resolve the crisis in Surabaya. However, due to forces launched provocation NICA (Netherlands) who ride the Allies. (under UK) burst event 10 November 1945 in Surabaya and the death of Brigadier General AWS Mallaby.
Since many provocations in Jakarta at the time, President Soekarno eventually move the capital city of Indonesia from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. Followed by vice president and high officials of other countries.
The position of President Sukarno by the 1945 Constitution is the position of president as head of government and head of state (presidential / single executive). During the revolution of independence, the system of government into executive semi-presidensiil/double. President Sukarno as head of state and Sutan Syahrir as Prime Minister / Head of Government. It happened because of the vice presidential decree No X, and the government decree in November 1945 about the political parties. This is taken to the Republic of Indonesia is considered a more democratic country.
Although the system of government changed, at the time of the revolution for independence, the position of President remains the most important, especially in the face of the Madiun affair during 1948 and the Dutch military aggression II that led to President Soekarno, Vice-President Mohammad Hatta and a number of high state officials arrested the Netherlands. Despite the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Emergency Government) with the head Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, but in reality the international and domestic situation continued to recognize that the Soekarno-Hatta Indonesia is a real leader, only policies that could solve the Indonesian-Dutch dispute.
After Confession Sovereignty (The Dutch government says the Transfer of Sovereignty), President Soekarno was appointed as President of the United States of Indonesia (RIS) and Mohammad Hatta was appointed as prime minister of RIS. The position of President of Republic of Indonesia submitted to Mr. Assaat, which became known as the Java-Yogyakarta Indonesia. However, because the demands of all Indonesian people who want to return to a unitary state, then on August 17, 1950, USI re-transformed into the Republic of Indonesia and President Sukarno became President. Mandate as stakeholders Assaat Mr. President position be returned to Ir. Sukarno. The official position of President Sukarno was the constitutional president, but in fact government policy made after consultation with him.
Myth Dwitunggal Soekarno-Hatta quite popular and more powerful among the people than the head of government of prime minister. Cabinet downs known as "cabinet for the rest of the corn" to make less trusting President multiparty system, even called it a "partisan disease". Not infrequently, he also stepped in to mediate the conflicts in the military body that also impact on the cabinet downs. As October 17, 1952 events and events in the Air Force.
President Sukarno also provides many ideas in the international community. Concern over the fate of Afro-Asian nations, is still not free, do not have the right to self-determination, causing the president Sukarno, in 1955, took the initiative to hold the Asian-African Conference in Bandung, which produced Dasa Sila. Bandung is known as the capital city of Asia and Africa. Inequality and conflict due to "time bomb" left by the western countries are concerned that branded imperialism and colonialism, inequality and the fears of the emergence of a nuclear war that changed civilization, injustice agencies internationally in conflict resolution is also concerned. With President Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia), Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt), Mohammad Ali Jinnah (Pakistan), U Nu, (Burma) and Jawaharlal Nehru (India), he made the Asian-African Conference that led to the Non-Aligned Movement. Thanks to their services, many Asian countries that gained independence Africa. But unfortunately, still many are also experiencing ongoing conflict so far because of the injustice in the solution of the problem, which is still controlled by powerful countries or superpowers. Thanks to this service also, many people from the Asia-Africa will not forget Sukarno when remember or be familiar with Indonesia.
To run the foreign policy of free-active in the international world, President Sukarno visited many countries and met with state leaders. Among them was Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet Union), John Fitzgerald Kennedy (United States), Fidel Castro (Cuba), Mao Tse Tung (China).
This era began in the fall of Sukarno he "divorced" with Vice President Moh. Hatta, in 1956, due to resignations from the arena of politics Hatta Indonesia. Plus a number of separatist rebellion that occurred across Indonesia, and ultimately, rebellion G 30 S, a Sukarno in his tenure can not "meet" the ideals of the Indonesian nation a prosperous and prosperous.
Sick to death
Sukarno died on June 21, 1970 at Wisma Yaso, Jakarta, after experiencing ostracism by his successor Suharto. His body was buried in Blitar, East Java, and now the icon of the city, because every year hundreds of thousands visited by millions of tourists from all over the world. Especially when the implementation Haul Bung Karno.
On June 19, 2008, the Cuban government issued a stamp with a picture of President Sukarno and Fidel Castro of Cuba. Publishing it along with the anniversary of the Fidel Castro and 80 warnings "visit of President of Indonesia, Sukarno, to Cuba".
Sukarno's full name at birth was Kusno Sosrodihardjo. When I was little, because often ailing, according to the Javanese custom; by his parents renamed to Sukarno. In later days when he became President of the Republic of Indonesia, Sukarno changed the spelling of the name of her own became Sukarno because he thought the spelling of the name used colonizers (Netherlands). He still uses the name of Sukarno in his signature because the signature is the signature contained in the text of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence should not be changed. The term familiar to Ir. Sukarno was the Bung Karno.
In some Western countries, Sukarno name is sometimes written Achmed Sukarno. This occurs because when Sukarno first time visiting the United States, some reporters wondered, "What was the name of Sukarno small?" because they do not understand the habit of some people in Indonesia who only uses one name only, or do not have family names. Somehow, then add the name of a person in front of the name of Achmed Sukarno. This also happened in some existing, such as wikipedia Czech language, the language of Wales, Danish, German, and Spanish.
Sukarno Achmed mention that name in dapatnya when perform the pilgrimage.
And in some other versions, giving names mentioned in the name of Achmed Sukarno, carried out by Muslim diplomats from Indonesia who were conducting missions abroad in an effort to obtain recognition of Indonesian sovereignty of Arab countries. (Wikipedia)
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